1854 Gold Dollar PCGS MS65

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Gem Quality - Type Two - $1 Gold Coin

 

The 1854 Type Two gold dollar was made to the extent of about 786,000 circulation strikes, roughly 10% less than the 1854 Type One gold dollars, at 856,000 business strikes.

Statistically speaking, there is little difference in the two figures.

However, as Walter Breen has correctly pointed out, the total mintage of the Type Two gold dollars -- all mints and years -- was only about one-seventh that of the total mintage of Type One gold dollars -- about 1.7 million Type Twos versus 12.6 million Type Ones.

The 1854 and 1855 Philadelphia Mint productions, by far the most generous among the six Type Two issues, resultingly come to the fore as in-demand type representatives.

The example offered here displays lovely orange-gold color and satiny surfaces.

Listed at $26,500 in the PCGS price guide and $32,500 in Trends.

 

Gold Dollar (All Three Types)

Gold Dollar (All Three Types)

William T. Gibbs - 

Designer moves date to reverse on gold dollar By William T. Gibbs


COIN WORLD Staff When the gold dollar made its debut in 1849, its designs featured a major departure from every U.S. coin struck before that year.

The date was placed on the reverse, not the obverse.

The practice of placing the date on the reverse lasted for all three design types used on the gold dollar, struck between 1849 and 1889. The same practice was used in 1854, when the Indian Head gold $3 coin was introduced (bearing designs similar to those used on the gold dollar). The change in practice was made necessary by the small diameter of the coin (13 millimeters from 1849 to 1854 and 14.86 millimeters from 1854 to 1889).

The Liberty portrait on the obverse leaves little space for the date, especially with the placement of 13 six-pointed stars around the rim of the obverse. Was placement of the date on the reverse legal? Possibly not. The Mint Act of April 2, 1792, specified that the date and a representation of Liberty appear on one side of each coin, and on the reverses of silver and gold coins, an eagle.

The Mint Act of Jan. 18, 1837, a major recodification of coinage laws, continued those requirements.

The Mint Act of March 3, 1849, authorizing the gold dollar (and the $20 double eagle) did approve omission of the eagle from the reverse of the dollar, but did not authorize moving the date from the obverse to the reverse. Placing the date on the reverse rather than the obverse appears to have been an early decision.

An 1836 pattern features a radiant Liberty cap bearing LIBERTY on the obverse, with UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, the denomination (as 1 D.) and date 1836 on the reverse.

Engraver James Barton Longacre produced a small number of hand-engraved gold patterns in 1849, each with the date hand cut into the holed planchet on the reverse. Holed planchets were tested as a way of increasing the diameter of the gold dollar to a more acceptable size, but were rejected as too difficult to produce. Longacre's designs for the 1849 to 1854 gold dollar depict a portrait of Liberty wearing a coronet inscribed with LIBERTY on the obverse, and a wreath encircling 1 DOLLAR, with the date below dollar.

The same Coronet Liberty portrait was used on the double eagle (patterns of which were struck in 1849). The 13-millimeter diameter of the gold dollar was considered too small, and it was increased to 14.86 millimeters in 1854.

Completely new designs were introduced as well in 1854.

The obverse depicts Longacre's standard Liberty portrait, but wearing a stylized Indian headdress rather than coronet. The legend UNITED STATES OF AMERICA was moved to the obverse. A completely new, more substantial wreath was placed on the reverse, with the denomination and date still placed within the wreath. Longacre's Liberty-as-Indian portrait was used for just three years, on seven different dollars.

It was replaced in 1856 with a slightly larger, new Indian Head portrait that is virtually identical to that used on the gold $3 coin, introduced in 1854.

The first Indian Head gold dollar portrait is generally referred to as the Small Head, while the second Indian portrait is generally called the Large Head.

However, the differences between the two portraits are more than just size: the shape of the bottom of the neck differs; the shapes of the feathers differ; and the hair is differently shaped (curlier on the Small Head portrait).

The gold dollar has many rarities, including many of the Branch Mint coins struck at Dahlonega, Ga.; Charlotte, N.C.; and San Francisco.

The extreme rarity of many of the coins makes the gold dollar series one for the well-heeled buyer.

The rarest coin is the 1849-C Coronet, Open Wreath gold dollar.

The 1861-D coin is another rarity, its mintage kept small by the Civil War.

The 1855-D, 1856-D, 1860-D and 1875 coins are also scarce, each bringing four-figure prices even in Fine 12 condition. Five Mints struck gold dollars: Philadelphia, Dahlonega, Charlotte, New Orleans and San Francisco. Overall, the Philadelphia Mint coins are the most common.

Some Dahlonega Mint coins have mintages of fewer than 2,000 coins, making them among the rarest of regular issues. 

Coronet gold dollar

Date of authorization: March 3, 1849

Dates of issue: 1849-1954

Designer/Engraver: James B. Longacre

Diameter: 13.00 mm/0.51 inch

Weight:1.67 grams/0.05

Metallic content: 90% gold, 10% copper and silver

Weight of pure silver: 1.50 grams/0.05 ounce

Edge: Reeded

Mint mark: Reverse below wreath

  

Indian Head gold dollar

Date of authorization: March 3, 1849

Dates of issue: 1854-1889

Designer/Engraver: James B. Longacre

Diameter: 14.86 mm/0.59 inch

Weight: 1.67 grams/0.05 ounce

Metallic content: 90% gold, 10% copper and silver

Weight of pure silver: 1.50 grams/0.95 ounce

Edge: Reeded

Mint mark: Reverse below wreath

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